Biography of Guru Teg Bahadur, ninth Guru of Sikhism
Guru Teg Bahadur, ninth Guru of Sikhism, was born on 18 April, 1621 in Amritsar. He was first named as Tyag Mal by his father Guru Har Gobind Ji and his mother Naankee. Guru Teg Bahadur was the youngest among the five sons of his father. He was married on 4 February, 1631 with the daughter of Lal Chand, Gujari. On 16 April, 1664, he got the successorship of ninth Guru of Sikhism by Guru Har Krishan after his death.
Tyagi Mal was renamed as Teg Bahadur on 26 April, 1635 by Guru Har Gobind Ji for his bravery after he had won a battle against Mughals.
Highlights of life history of Guru Teg Bahadur
• Guru Teg Bahadur learned swordsmanship from his father Guru Har Gobind Ji who was himself a master in Miri and Piri.
• Guru Teg Bahadur leaned languages like Gurmukhi, Hindi, Sanskrit and Indian religious philosophy from Bhai Gurdas, and archery and horsemanship from Baba Budha in the early stage of his childhood.
• He established the city Anandpur Sahib on 19 June, 1665.
• He saved the Kashmiri Pandits from Mughals.
• He contributed 115 hymns (shalok) to Shri Guru Granth Sahib.
• Guru Teg Bahadur had proved the victory of good over evil with his martyrdom. He is also known as Hind ki Chaadar as he had saved Hinduism by sacrificing his own life.
An incident of how Guru Teg Bahadur was renowned as ninth guru of Sikhism
Before death, Guru Har Krishan had announced that his successor would be found in Bakala. Devotees of Guru Har Krishan migrated towards Baba Bakala to search their next Guru. But all the 2 members of Sodhi family were claiming themselves as successor of Guru Har Krishan. Meanwhile, the ship of a Sikh trader, Makhan Singh, was caught in a huge storm in a ship. The ship was full of wealth. Makhan Singh closed his eyes and promised God that if his ship would reach safely up to the sea shore then he will donate 500 gold coins to Guru Har Krishan. But he was unaware that Guru Har Krishan had been expired. On reaching Bakala, he distributed 2 gold coins to each member of Sodhi dynasty as fulfillment of his promise. When Makhan Singh was about to go out of the town, he come to know from somebody that a member of Sodhi dynasty had been left without gold coins. That member was busy in his prayers in an underground room. When Makhan Singh gave his also 2 gold coins, that person said to Makhan Singh that you had promised to pay 500 gold coins to God, then why are you paying just 2. Makhan Singh was overjoyed on hearing that. He came out of the room and shouted that he had founded the true successor of Guru Har Krishan Ji.
Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur
Against an order issued by Aurangzeb , Guru Teg Bahadur was arrested near Anandpur in July 1675 along with some of his followers and was send to Sirhind. They all were kept there in prison for 3 months. They were then taken to Delhi in an iron cage in November 1675.
Aurangzeb issued an order to put Guru Teg Bahadur in heavy iron chains and to torture until he accepts Islam. On his disapproval, Guru Teg Bahadur was beheaded in Chandni Chowk of Delhi in public on 11 November 1675.
but before his arrest, Guru Teg Bahadur had nominated his son Guru Gobind Singh Ji as his successor and tenth Guru of Sikhism.
(Image borrowed with gratitude from sikhwiki dot org)